Trims, Closures, Accessories
An apparel or any other textile product is incomplete as far as it is not finished with trims
. A dress, a bag or any such product has to be fitted with closures like buckles, buttons, clips, elastic fasteners, grommets, hook and eye, hook and loop, metal fasteners, plastic fasteners, rivets, snaps, velcro, zippers etc so that it doesn't loose its functionality. Other support accessories are also required sometimes for comfort or added functionality of the product. These may include bra cups, bra fillers, bra molding, collar stays, corsets, felt, fusibles, interfacings, interlinings, linings, quilted linings, shoulder pads, sleeve heads, suspenders, underwire, waistbands etc. For giving style and designer look to a piece of textile product, many types of trims are also prevalent including apparel logos, appliques, embroidered emblems, embroidery patterns, reflective trim, ruffles, yokes, ribbons, laces, tapes, Webbings, Cords, Straps etc. A brief description of some of the trims, closures and accessories will help understand their role in the finishing of textile products.
Buttons are small plastic or metal disc shaped, usually round, object. They are generally attached to an article of clothing for securing its opening. Sometimes they are used for ornamentation too. Buttons have to be slipped through a fabric or a thread loop, or slid through a buttonhole. A wide range of materials are used for manufacturing buttons although plastic buttons are the most prevalent ones. Others include natural materials like bone, horn, ivory, shell, vegetable ivory, wood and synthetic materials such as celluloid, glass, metal and bakelite. The size of the button depends on its use. They are usually measured in lignes, also called lines and abbreviated as L. 40 lignes are equal to 1 inch. Functional buttons, as opposed to decorative buttons, are commonly paired with a buttonhole which may either be hand or machine sewn.
Buckles are clasps used for holding two things together, such as the ends of a belt. They are sometimes used to fasten boots and other shoes or sandals. They can also be found on backpacks, watches and other wrist jewelry, or for decorative purposes on other objects. Buckles are usually made of metal or plastic. The fashion of custom buckles is on a rise and people mostly like to have their name or nicknames on buckles. These buckles are prepared with great care giving them various finishes like chrome, rhinestone, gold color etc.
Fasteners are hardware devices that mechanically join or affix two or more objects together. In textile industry, they are generally used to close a bag or a box or other similar types of products. They are also essential for setting up tents for various purposes. Upholstery too requires fasteners for affixing textile material to furnitures. Metal and plastic, both types of fasteners are manufactured for various purposes.
Grommets are reinforced eyelets, as in cloth or leather, through which a fastener may be passed. The term is also used for a small metal or plastic ring used to reinforce such an eyelet. If any material such as metal or leather has a hole made in it, the hole may have sharp edges. The soft vulnerable material such as laces passing through the hole can be distorted resulting in damage. Thus, rubber, plastic or plastic coated metal grommets are used as shielding to avoid such damages.
Rivets are mechanical fastener. They consist of a smooth cylindrical shaft with a head on one end. The end opposite the head is called the buck-tail. For using a rivet, it has to be placed in a hole. Then the tail is usually deformed so that it expands to about 1.5 times the original shaft diameter and holds the rivet in place. To distinguish between the two ends of the rivet, the original head is called the factory head and the deformed end is called the shop head or buck-tail. Different types of rivets such as solid rivets, blind rivets, multi-grip rivets, grooved rivets, peel type blind rivets, self-pierce rivets, plastic rivets, tubular rivets, etc are manufactured and are used in various industry. In textile industry, they have find an important application in the manufacturing of jeans.
Velcros are kinds of hook-and-loop fasteners. They consist of two layers. One of its portion is called "hook" side, which is a piece of fabric and is covered with tiny hooks. The other portion is the "loop" side, which is covered with even smaller and "hairier" loops. When the two sides are pressed together, the hooks catch in the loops and hold the pieces together. Velcro can be made of cotton, nylon or polyester. Velcro is extensively used in products like jackets, gloves, shoes etc. Velcro made of Teflon loops, polyester hooks, and glass backing is used on space shuttles.
Zippers are devices for temporarily joining two edges of fabric or other material. They are used in clothing , luggage and other bags, sporting goods, camping gear such as tents and sleeping bags and many other daily use items. No other closure is as extensively used in textile products as zippers. They are made of various materials including metal, plastics, nylon etc. Various types of zippers are manufactured these days. The bag type zippers have two sliders. When it is closed, the sliders meet at any point on the zipper. These are commonly used for bags. The Closed End zippers have one slider and operate in one way only. These are used for apparels, purses, tents etc. The Coverall zippers, as the name indicates, are used on coveralls. Its one end is open and one end is closed. The Open End zippers are commonly used on the front of jackets and on any item that requires the zipper halves to fully detach from each other. Two Way Open End zippers have two slides and can be opened from the top and/or the bottom. They are used for heavy winter coats where more leg room may be needed for such works as driving car, while still keeping the top slider zipped up. The zipper halves completely separate just like a standard jacket zipper.
Corset is an undergarment traditionally made of stiffened material laced tight to the body and was used earlier for molding and shaping the torso into a desired shape. Both men and women are known to wear corsets, though women are more common wearers. The modern "corsets" and "corset tops" have very little effect on the shape of the wearer's body. An overbust corset encloses the torso, extending from just under the arms to the hips. An underbust corset begins just under the breasts and extends down to the hips. Some corsets extend over the hips. A shorter kind of corset, which covers only the waist area is called a 'waist cincher'. Cotton, linen, satin and silk are generally used for manufacturing corsets. l.
Lace is an openwork fabric which is patterned with open holes. It can be made by machine or by hand. Originally linen, silk, gold, or silver threads were used for making laces. Nowadays, lace is generally made with cotton and synthetic thread. There are various types of laces based on the style of their manufacturing. Needle lace is made by using a needle and thread. Cutwork or whitework lace is made by removing threads from a woven background. Bobbin Lace is made with bobbins and a pillow. The bobbins, made of wood, bone or plastic, hold threads which are woven together and held in place with pins stuck in the pattern on the pillow. Tape lace makes the tape in the lace as it is worked. It can also use a machine or hand-made textile strip formed into a design, then joined and embellished with needle or bobbin lace. Knotted lace is made with a shuttle or a tatting needle. Crocheted lace are made with crochets. When laces are made by knitting, they are called knitted lace.
Webbings are strong woven fabrics made in a shape of flat strip or tube in variety of widths. They are often used in place of rope. These days, webbings are made from high-strength material such as Dyneema, Nylon, Polyester, and Kevlar. Other materials used for making webbings include cotton, polypropylene and flax. Webbings are both, light and strong. As such they are used in variety of applications including climbing, slacklining, furniture manufacturing, automobile safety, auto racing, towing, parachuting, military apparel, transportation and many other applications.