Since time immemorial, carpets and rugs have been a part of home. Apart from decorating, carpets give a style statement and add character to a room. They come in a wide range of styles, all of which have specific functionality. Carpets and Rugs
are tender to feet and bring warmth to the whole atmosphere. Besides the aesthetic sense spread by the hand woven traditional carpets, there are modern contemporary carpets too, having such amazing properties, such as sound absorption.
Types of Carpets and their Manufacturing Process
Carpets differ in a variety of ways- their styles, the methods adopted for their manufacturing, the finishes given to them and the different applications they are put to. When it comes to carpet manufacturing, different techniques are adopted. The methods of carpet making vary from region to region. They are handwoven as well as manufactured through machines. Both of them have their own distinct characteristics. Carpets are sometimes decorated through embroidery or other crafts giving them grace and elegance. Machine made carpets are very good in their finish and have very smooth surface.
These type of carpets are woven on big looms, more or less like any other fabric is woven. They may have cut and uncut piles and loops. Various colorful yarns are used for making a variety of patterns and designs on the carpets. As too much of labor and toil is required for making these woven carpets
, they are generally very expensive.
Loop Pile Carpet
In such a carpet, the pile forms a loop. When the yarn is threaded through the backing and then sewn back through, a loop of yarn is formed. Continuous rows of loops produce a wide variety of textures from thick and nubbly to smooth and plain. The twist and the density of the yarn determine the quality of a loop pile carpet.
Cut Pile Carpet
A cut pile carpet
is made by cutting off loop tops for creating pile which stands upright with an even surface. It turns out to be very soft and creates a smooth, comfortable and luxurious feel. Like other carpets, it is also constructed in loops but the loops are then cut into pile manually or with the help of machines. Carpet with high density pile are far more better than carpets having low density pile.
Cut Loop Pile Carpets
These carpets have the features of both, the cut pile carpet and the loop pile carpet. They are manufactured with the combination of looped yarn and cut yarn. Some of the loops are tufted higher than the others. While shearing the carpets, the higher loops are cut whereas the lower loops remain untouched. The cut pile thus formed looks darker than the loops, creating interesting patterns giving a rich visual experience by reflecting light in varied manners. Sculptured effects can be produced by giving a variety of pile heights to it.
Knotted Pile Weave Carpets
These carpets are also referred to as pile weave rugs or pile weave carpets. They are manufactured with knots on them. For making such a carpet, each pile is knotted manually to the wrap threads according to the predetermined design. Knot is created in every row after which one or more strands of weft are passed through a complete set of warp strands. In the mid of every row with knots, one or more wefts are placed to secure the knots. This is done with the help of such simple tools as knife, hook, pair of scissors and a heavy comb, made of wood and metal. These equipment are used to beat the knots and weft in a row.
After knotting whole of the carpet, the pile is shorn to the desired length. The carpet is finally washed or treated with chemicals according to the required finish. A pile weave rug has around 25 to over 1,000 knots per square inch. More number of knots per square inch means better quality of carpet. The knots also differ from region to region. Some of the prevalent knots are Persian Knots, Turkish Knots, Spanish Knots, double Knots, Tibetan Knots and others.
Needlefelt Carpets are the modern carpets made with the help of advanced techniques. They are made by electrostatic attraction of individual synthetic fibers resulting in extremely durable carpets. In this process the fibers are compressed on to a backing of textile or other materials like foam etc. with the help of needles. A binding agent is used to make the fibers attach to the backing more durably. Although fibers can be bound or felted without a backing too but the backing is used to give extra protection. To make the binding strong and lasting, the needled substrate is subsequently subjected to further thermal or chemical treatment.
Other Carpets and Rugs
There are certain other carpets which are neither woven nor felted.
These carpets are made through stitches applied on to a cloth, often linen, as a base. They are not formed on a loom. A great craftsmanship is required to execute the details and sometimes, it almost takes a year to weave a single carpet with rich embroidery. Two types of stitches are generally used to make embroidered carpets- the tent stitch and the cross stitch. The designs and patterns of the embroidered carpets
vary with region, history and cultural traditions. The most popular carpets include Persian embroidered carpets, Kashmir embroidered carpets and Turkish embroidered carpets. They are the most prized home decor items.
These rugs come with unique weaving texture. The braids are arranged and combined in such a manner that it looks like as if the braids of yarn have been woven together. They are mostly used for indoor accents or as outdoor mats. Yarn used in such types of rugs may vary from jute, sisal and coir to wool, cotton or synthetic fibers.
While selecting the fibers, characteristics such as moisture resistance, stains resistance, strength against abrasion, environmental concerns, and price are considered.