Knowledge is the key to success and this also stands true for textile industry. Every textile entrepreneur need to know the basic, traditional as well as modern and technical apparel making techniques. This helps the traders compare all the available means in the market and select the one best suited for the business requirement. The basic processes of textile manufacturing viz. spinning, weaving, knitting, finishing processes, dyeing, printing and others are all involved in fabric manufacturing. However, the actual ready to wear apparel involves many more processes right from pattern drafting to garment construction which include pattern designing and pattern making, grading, marker making, apparel cutting, sewing, pressing and finishing. Lets have an overview of the basic processes as well as the latest trends in the making of an apparel.
The basic procedure for apparel making is to design a pattern and put it into an identifiable form. The traditional method of pattern making includes creation of hard paper patterns. The modern apparel making system has adopted the digitization of pattern making process. These days many clothing firms provide the most modern and technical services for garment construction. They can create fresh computerized patterns or make modifications to existing hard paper patterns or digitize the available data. These patterns can be made from their own samples or specifications provided by the apparel manufacturers. Most of these firms try to provide patterns that will sew properly without confusion in the production line.
Grading is the process used for creating sized patterns. There are certain proportional rules and set increments that form the basis of grading. These rules are set on the basis of analysis on body measurements of the general population. The clothing firms also help in pattern grading using the specifications provided by the apparel manufacturers and some of them also assist the manufacturers in establishing specifications for their product. The grade rules are developed keeping in view the market segment for which the product is intended such as men, women, youth, child, toddler etc. These firms mostly use the softwares available in the market for checking the accuracy of the grades.
Fabric is the most important basic material for apparel making and it accounts for around 50 per cent of the ex-factory cost of a garment. Thus, material optimization or maximizing fabric utilization is the fundamental factor for every apparel firm. Marker making is done to avoid material wastage. While making markers, fabric width, length, fabric type and subsequent cutting method, all are taken into account. Both single size and multiple size paper markers are made using automated marker making tools and Computer Aided Design Computer Aided Manufacturing (CADCAM) along with traditional manual methods. The firms providing this service use previously graded pattern or the digitized copy of styles provided by the apparel manufacturers.
Apart from using traditional tools such as straight knife, band knife, shears etc. nowadays, automatic spreading equipment and computerized cutting systems are widely used for apparel cutting . Pattern specifications are kept into consideration while cutting which ensures that the constructed garment is exactly similar to the sample produced. The use of markers ensures as little textile waste as possible.
The sewing operation in most of the garment construction companies is closely supervised for quality control. A variety of apparel styles and fabrics are sewn these days. There are a large number of sewing machines available for almost any sewing operation. Some of the examples of such machines are single needle, double needle, safety stitch, automatic meter, automatic multi stitch, loop tacker, pocket welt, keyhole buttonhole, automatic button sewer, round eyelet etc.
Pressing and Finishing
After the sewing operation, the constructed garments are examined, pressed, tagged and bagged in the pressing and finishing department. The automated processes adopted these days prevent the possibility of wrinkling of the sewn garments throughout the finishing process.