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Industry Overview

An Introduction
Apparel and Clothing
The textile industry touches the lives of all people in one or the other ways. Apparel, Home textiles, Technical textiles, Industrial textiles, Medical textiles, Safety textiles, Smart or Intelligent textiles, there are variations for all - Consumers, Traders, Manufacturers, Technologists, Engineers and others.

History of Textile Industry- A Reference
The World Trade OrganizationTextile industry has come a long way to be an organized industry from being a mere domestic industry. Starting with the Industrial Revolution, it has gained a state of supremacy with time. High production of wool, cotton and silk all over the world has given a boost to the textile industry in past years. Though the industry originated in UK, the art of textile production passed to Europe and North America after mechanization of textile manufacturing process in those areas. Asian countries also industrialized their economies and took steps for the growth of this sector. Japan, India, Hong Kong and China have become leading producers of textile because of the availability of cheap labour which is a very important factor for this industry. Source: wikipedia Now the industry has matured enough for growth outside the traditional western markets

The World Trade Organization (WTO) has taken important steps for development of this sector. In 1995, WTO had adopted Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), which provided for removal of quotas on textile and clothing among WTO member countries. This agreement was enforced on 1-1-2005 and all the quotas were abolished. Although high tariffs and quantitative restrictions are imposed by the economically developed countries, the developing countries are increasingly exporting textiles to developed and other countries.

Global Textile Scenario - The Present Statistics
According to statistics, the global textile market is worth of more than $400 billions at present. In a more liberalized environment, the industry is facing competition as well as opportunities. It is predicted that Global textile production will grow up to 25 % by the year 2010 and 50 % by 2014. The world textile and apparel industry has gone into a phase of transformation since the elimination of quota in the year 2005. Many new competitors as well as consumers have entered the global market with their immense capabilities and the desire to grow:

The World Trade Organization
  • It is expected that China will represent around 45% of global trade by 2010. Inspite of its significant growth trend, China's rising costs and perceived risks are creating more opportunities for other low cost countries.
  • It is also expected that India will represent around 20% of global trade by 2010 . India is rapidly expanding its role with new capacity build-up in management control of textile trades through vertical integration. Vertically integrated companies are organized in a hierarchy and share a common owner. Usually each member of the hierarchy produces a different product or service. The products are combined to achieve a common goal. The advantage of Vertical integration is that it avoids the hold-up problem.
  • Pakistan, Vietnam, Cambodia and Bangladesh are relying on their low manufacturing costs due to cheap labour available there. Thus they are building up more capacity in textile manufacturing.

  • Labour Cost in Textile Industry- 2007
  • Turkey,closely connected to Italy, is fast emerging as a critical regional player. It is creating a number of new regional brand players by providing them ' Turquality ' accreditation. The purpose of this accreditation is to strengthen the quality image and enhance the recognition and awareness of Turkish brands.
  • Egypt is presently working with new emphasis in textile sector.
  • Eastern European countries, have suffered a slight set back due to their growing costs. As a result they are rapidly refocusing and repositioning on higher market segments.
  • South and Central America maintain a relevant focus on textile
  • Italy still leads in the luxury segments.
  • In the western countries, imports have almost reached 85-90% of total consumption
western countries
Trends and Innovations in Fabric Manufacturing
Fabric manufacture is the most important part of Textile industry. The manufacture of textile can be divided into three segments: Apparel, Home textile and Industrial/ Technical Textile. The ratio of Global textile production of these segments has been shown in the following chart:

Textile Production by volume of fiber usage

In the recent years, intense research and development have taken place in Technical textiles and Innovative apparel fabrics. Technical textile is high performance textile that is based on special functionality. Its market is expanding and it is used in various industries like agriculture, clothing, construction, health care, transportation, packaging, sports, environmental protection, protective wear, and many more.

The global market for technical textiles is expected to grow to the value of US$ 127 billion by the year 2010. While the US and EU continue to be the main manufacturers and consumers of functional textiles, China has emerged as a large manufacturer of the same. The Technical textiles may be classified into following categories :

  • Agrotech : Agro Textile are used in gardening, landscaping, agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry etc.
  • Buildtech: Construction textile used in the construction of buildings, sport arenas and halls.
  • Clothtech: Functional textile used in clothing and footwear
  • Geotech: Geo Textile used by the civil engineering industries like roads, bridges, tunnels and dams to provide support and stability below the ground level.
  • Indutech: Industrial Textile used for purposes such as filtration, cleaning, mechanical engineering, sealing, sound insulating, etc.
  • Medtech: Medical Textile used in health and hygiene applications for the medical markets.
  • Mobiltech: Transport Textiles used in the construction, equipment and furnishing of passengers and goods transportation (land, sea, air), civil and military.
  • Hometech: Home Textile used in the manufacture of furniture, upholstery, floor coverings and carpets.
  • Oekotech: Eco Textile used in environmental protection, waste disposal and recycling.
  • Packtech: Packing Textiles used for carriage, storage and protection of industrial, agricultural and other goods.
  • Protech: Protective textiles used in personal and property protection.
  • Sporttech: Sports textile used for sport and leisure products .
Apart from these the Global Market for Smart Fabrics and Interactive Textiles (SFIT) has developed significantly in recent years. These textiles provide interactive properties such as electrical conductivity, ballistic resistance and biological protection. Electrically heated seat kits which have been a major commercial success is a fine example of this type of textile.

Innovations in Fibers, Textiles and Apparels : Innovations enable a company to differentiate its products and take competitive advantage in the market. Many innovations have been made in the field of textile manufacturing:
  • Fire Resistant textile protects human skin from flames and heat, hot gases and vapors. These are used in industries like aerospace, construction, defense, fire fighting, engineering, mining etc.
  • Smart or Intelligent textiles can think for themselves. They can sense and react to external conditions and also retain the aesthetic and technical properties of textile material. They are used to measure strain, temperature, pressure, electric currents, magnetic fields, etc. in defense, aerospace, science and research, nuclear plants etc.
  • Ultra-fine textiles use tightly woven fabrics which have high resistance to dust, water and wind. They also have extremely soft look and are used in manufacture of fashion garments like suede suits etc. They are also used in medicinal field for making bandages, sheets, patients' gowns, curtains and bedsheets.
  • Electronic textiles or e-textiles are used for manufacturing fabrics that have electronic interconnections within them. These clothings measure blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature etc. and relay the data to a computer, cellphone or other device that could signal for help if the wearer experiences a health problem. Another variation of it may have an MP3 player fitted in it.
  • Nano fibers are used for manufacturing protective suits for police, defense, fire fighters etc. These fibers are the finest fibers in the world and have better mechanical properties than any micro fibers made of the same material.
  • Abrasion resistant fabrics can resist injury, erosion, scratch, extreme weather etc. They are used in defense, fire fighting, marine, automotive, glass manufacturing, engineering etc.
  • Adhesives fabrics ensure a long-lasting bonding between various elements and are used in industries like aerospace, automobile, automotive, water fabrication, IT, electrical, metalworks, construction, aviation etc.
  • Anti allergic and Anti Bacterial textiles can reduce all types of bacterial, fungal allergies like colds and flues and improve sleep, meditation and relaxation, increases lung capacity, absorption of Vitamins B and C, relieves from migraine, respiratory tracks and nose disorders, stress, etc.
  • Anti MagneticAnti Magnetic textiles and Anti Radiation fabrics offer protection against magnetic pull in areas with active magnetic field and from Ultra Violet radiations. These textiles are used in industries such as aerospace, aviation, petrochemical, textile, electronics, machinery and environment protection..
  • Anti-static textile prevents damage to electrical components, fires and explosions when working with flammable liquids and gases.
  • Multifunctional Textiles include many properties in one product. These may include functionalities including waterproof , soil repellent, fire resistance, wrinkle free, anti-U and antistatic finishing and other qualities as well.
  • Auxetic textiles get fatter when stretched and narrower when compressed. These are used for making Personal Protection Clothing, filtration, Mechanical Lungs, Ropes, Cords & Nets, Medical Bandages, Fibrous Seals etc.
  • Insulating textiles can keep away cold and damp moisture in extreme climatic conditions. These are used in manufacture of garments for areas which have temperature below 0 degree Celsius- Mountaineering apparel, Defense uniforms, Astronaut costumes etc.
  • Insulating textiles can keep away cold and damp moisture in extreme climatic conditions. These are used in manufacture of garments for areas which have temperature below 0 degree Celsius- Mountaineering apparel, Defense uniforms, Astronaut costumes etc.
  • Luminescent and reflective textiles can absorb and store light energy when exposed to natural and artificial light sources such as sunlight, U.V. or fluorescent light and continuously emit stored energy in a form of visible light. These textiles are used as safety wear for fire men, traffic men and other personnel and for making warning boards or strips in industries like construction, electrical, mechanical etc.
  • Shape memory polymer is a significant innovation in the textile and garment industry. These intelligent textiles can remember their original shape and return to it after heat treatment like washing or treatment with steam. They can be used for textile finishing, fiber and film-making and in industries like defense and aerospace.
  • Shape memory polymer is a significant innovation in the textile and garment industry. These intelligent textiles can remember their original shape and return to it after heat treatment like washing or treatment with steam. They can be used for textile finishing, fiber and film-making and in industries like defense and aerospace.
  • Soluble textiles can dissolve in water at temperature ranging from 37 to 40 degree C depending on their composition. They are sterile hygienic materials used to protect patients and medical staff from infections, surgical garments and drapes, face masks and shoe covers, food industry including food science, agriculture, ceramics, paper and ink technology and explosives.
Apart from the above innovations many other new textiles have been introduced in the market. Bio-textiles, fitted with certain enzymes, genetically engineered microorganisms or vitamins etc. have medicinal, therapeutic and protective characteristics. These are useful in medical and defense industries. Cleansing textiles are used for domestic, industrial, nuclear plants purposes and also in cosmetic for making skin cleansing tissues and wipes and in automobiles as dust mapping dusters. Deodorizing or Odor absorbing textiles absorb liquids and even gases. These are used for making sports wear, under garments, socks, curtains, sheets etc. for hospitals and hotels. Anti Ballistic Textiles are used in Defense, Police, Fire Fighting, Aerospace & Aviation etc. as protection textiles against heavy impact, bullets, stabbing etc. Waterproof textiles are resistant to water and are used in marine and related industries, water sports, sails, protective garments, umbrellas, packaging material, field covers for cricket matches etc. Windproof textiles are used in making wind-sheeters and jackets for bikers, in defense and aerospace industries for making special uniforms, and in manufacture of sports wear for adventure sports.
Future Textile Industry- A Perspective

The future global market for textile and apparel is expected to expand in a significant way. The reasons for such expansion include growth of new consumption markets, Global expansion of modern retail business, boom of air and sea shipments, growth of textile and related production in Eastern Europe, ex Russian block, Turkey, Middle East, South East Asia, India, China and South America.

In future, It is going to be a challenging global market full of risks but also full of unbelievable opportunities. Strategic partnership among various interests will become more important than the traditional transactions through vendor relations.

Future Textile Industry

The two factors to be kept in mind are Skills & Competences and Key Trends.

Skills & Competences: It is going to be a talent intensive market where certain capabilities will dominate the market:
  • The capability to coordinate the dispersed supply chains through intelligence, understanding, technology and better management practices.
  • The trading capability for taking full advantage of the vast and diverse ranges of textile produced across the globe.
  • Capability of developing retail brands for differentiating from other products and for gaining loyalty of consumers.
  • B2B branding because the large retailers and brands are relying more and more on B2B brands.
  • Innovation- new products, new systems, new applications- innovation will be the key word.
  • Adding value to products , customized with the "fast" changing fashion and textile needs.
Key Trends : There will be no seasons specific textile and apparels, external factors will rapidly change scenarios, customization & the web will be more prominent:
  • While producing textile, factors such as environmental pollution and global warming will have to be considered. The world already has imposed strict rules and regulations regarding this.
  • Multi seasonal apparels will gain prominence.
  • External factors like exchange rates of the currencies such as Dollar, Euro, Yuan, Rupee etc., the fall and rise of petrol prices, air transport, country specific and global political situations will have greater impact on the rise or slowdown of the industry.
  • Internet sales are growing significantly and it will grow further.